This is where we post references or other notes related to articles that appear in Desert Report if space does not allow in the printed publication.

Please enjoy full articles or browse PDFs of past issues.


References for BLM’s Proposals For The Great Basin Sagebrush Sea: More Of The Same, Rebranded by Talasi Brook

(1) See

(2) See


(4) Williamson, M. et al. (2019). Fire, livestock grazing, topography, and precipitation affect occurrence and prevalence of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the central Great Basin, USA. Biological Invasions. Springer Nature Switzerland.; Reisner, M. D., Grace, J. B., Pyke, D. A. and Doescher, P. S. 2013. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(4): 1039-1049. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12097.


References for Urban Wilderness Collision: A Highway Through Utah’s Red Cliffs National Conservation Area by Tom Butine (September 2020)

1) This bill also proposed authorization for the Lake Powell Pipeline, which would also impact the tortoise, but that’s another story. The Pipeline is going through the NEPA process at the same time as the Highway, and Conserve Southwest Utah is organizing its public commenting too.

2) See documents on the BLM website

3) von Seckendorff, Hoff and Marlow, 2002

4) See DEIS Vol 3, section 5.1.1 on the BLM project website listed in (2) above.


References for National Parks – Past Progress, New Challenges: The 40th Anniversary Of The State Of The Parks Report by Jon Jarvis

(1) State of the Parks Report, 1980, Executive Summary

(2)  Title IV of the National Parks Omnibus Management Act of 1998, Public Law 105-391

(3) Dr. Patrick Gonzales, Human caused climate changes in the United States national parks and solutions for the future, Park Stewardship Forum,

(4) The Directed Reassignments of John Mumma and L. Lorraine Mintzmyer: Hearing …

By United States, United States. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Civil Service, Hearing, September 24, 1991

(5) Statement of Jonathan B. Jarvis, Nominee for Director, National Park Service Before the U. S. Senate Committee on Energy & Natural Resources, July 2009


References for Conflicts of Interest: Industrial Solar vs. Basic Biology by Pat Flanagan (March 2020)

(1) Daggett Solar Power Facility Administrative Draft Biological Resources Technical Report, Page 19 All reports are at



(4) Robin Kobaly. The Desert Under Our Feet. Desert Report. March 2019. Kathy Morrison. Carbon Sequestration. Flora. Fall 20;

(5) Daggett Solar Power facility EIR 3.0 Errata, page 3-2.

(6) The publication title is The Desert Underground: Exposing a Valuable Hidden World Under Our Feet. Available through The Summertree Institute.

(7) J.R. McAuliffe, E.P. Hamerlynck, M.C. Eppes. Landscape dynamics fostering the development and persistence of long-lived creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) clones in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 69- (2007) 96-126.

(8) Daggett Final EIR. Master Response 4 – Monitoring Stations. 2.0 Comment Letters and Responses to Comments Page 2-12. Scroll to Daggett Solar Power Facility.

(9) R. D. Evans, A. Koyama, D. L. Sonderegger, T. N. Charlet, B. A. Newingham, L. F. Fenstermaker, B. Harlow, V. L. Jin, K. Ogle, S. D. Smith, and R. S. Nowak. Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 6 APRIL 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2184;

(10) WSU professor finds dry deserts absorb unexpected carbon levels. RENEE MCCANN | Evergreen reporter, April 21, 2014;

(11) Leslie Richardson, Christopher Huber, Zhiliang Zhu, and Lynne Koontz. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in National Parks Values for the Conterminous United States. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/EQD/NRR—2014/880;


References for Keep Long Valley Green by Lynn Boulton (December 2019)

(1) 2015-2017 BSSG Progress Reports are on this website:

(2) 2018 and 2019 Bi-state Sage Grouse counts were presented orally and in slides at the BSSG Local Area Working Group meeting on June 5, 2019 held in Walker, CA, which I attended. They have not been officially released.






(8) Copy of lawsuit filed:


References for Air Touring National Parks By Dick Hingson (September 2019)

(1) Address of President Roosevelt at Grand Canyon, Arizona, May 6, 1903. Theodore Roosevelt papers. Library of Congress Manuscript Division Theodore Roosevelt Digital Library. Dickinson State University, Dickinson, North Dakota

(2) Such an airport would never be so easily built today! But it, along with the Glen Canyon Dam, were completed in the last few years prior to passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970. Both slipped in under the wire.

(3) Exception: voluntary plans for two south Florida parks (Biscayne and Big Cypress.


References for Imperial Valley Farmers And The Environment by Al Kalin (September 2019)

1. 711 Ag producers and 396 farms in Imperial County (2017 Agricultural Census)
2. 3.4 million U.S. ag producers. 327.2 million population (7/1/18 Census Estimate)
3. 711 Ag Producers. 181,827 Imperial County Population (7/1/18 Census Estimate)
4. ICAPCD Table 5-2 PM 10 2018 Inventory
5 ICAPCD Smoke Management Plan
6. ICAPCD Rule 701 (Ag Burning)
7. ICAPCD Policy 37 (Good Neighbor Policy)
8. ICAPCD Policy 34, 37 and Rule 701(Smoke Management Program)
9. ICAPCD Rule 214.3 (Emission Reduction Credits)
10. Reyes Romero, Imperial County Assistant Air Pollution Control Officer
11. ICAPCD Rule 806 (Conservation Management Practices)
12. Rachel Garewal, Imperial Deputy Ag Commissioner (Pesticide Use Enforcement)
13. Imperial Irrigation Districts Crop Acreage Reports


References for Somewhere In The Desert??? Desert X Has Caused Environmental Damage In Coachella By Ruth Nolan (June 2019)

“Mixing Art, Activism and Science. And Some Tropical Fish.” By Lisa Bend. New York Times, February 7, 2019.

“Jenny Holzer’s Desert X Installation Postponed Over Concern for Bighorn Sheep” by Lauren Messman, the New York Times Feb 7, 2019.

“Desert X Installation Won’t be Activated for Fear of Endangering Bighorn Sheep,” the Desert Sun Newspaper online published Feb 7, 2019.

“Desert X art show puts a Jenny Holzer installation on hold over animal welfare worries.” By Debra Vankin. Los Angeles Times, February 5, 2019.

Email Correspondence with Anonymous Palm Springs resident/author. Conducted by Ruth Nolan. February 5, 2019.


References for On The Topic of Pollution and the Loss of Common Sense By Arturo. Medina Sr. (June 2019)

1) Dioxins refers to a group of toxic chemical compounds that share certain chemical structures and biological characteristics, Dioxins are produced as a result of human activities like the backyard burning of trash or formed as a result of combustion processes such as waste incineration (commercial or municipal) or from burning fuels (like wood, coal or oil). EPA’s 2006 Dioxin Inventory of Sources Report.

2) Clark, Chris. Imperial County: Toxic Capital of the California Desert. KCET, April 29, 2013.

3) Underwood, Marilyn Phd., California Department of Public Health. Letter sent to Mr. Poiriez, dated November 2, 2009.


References for .in the light of the desert sun. By Anthony Tróchez (June 2019)

1) This is a poem I wrote on June 4, 2014

2) The term “technology” in this article is an aggregate of all forms of technologies that have been created since the industrial revolution—especially applicable to all those created in the digital age.

3) “World” and “Earth” are not synonyms; the term “world” is social construct commonly used to describe an earthly state of existence. As such, I use the world to describe the ideological understandings of where we live and how we might want to live in these places (think ‘worldview’).

4) Whiteness is a term used to describe white privilege and the implicit, systemic advantages that white people have in relation to people of color—and, I suggest, the whole of the Earth—who are objectified and dehumanized by racism and oppression at large. Whiteness makes invisible the needs and plight of those who exist outside of it, by only centering the needs and desires of those in power.

5) Likewise, “Earth” and “World” are not synonyms; I use the term “Earth” to describe our home which we share with all the wondrous, living, breathing, feeling beings we share place with. When I say “Earth” I am attempting to recognize other species as people, as teachers. They teach us about interdependence and coexistence, they teach us about rhythms and seasons. Earth is not an “it” To refer to the Earth as an itrobs the Earth of selfhood and kinship.

6) I borrow this phrase from Dr. Cornel West.

7) Aimé Césaire (1955, 1972) Audre Lorde (1984), Aurora Levins Morales (1998), bell hooks (1981, 1994, 1999, 2000), Chandra Talpade Mohanty (2003), Eve Tuck (2012), Frantz Fanon (1952), Gloria Anzaldúa (1987), Juanita Nelson (1988), Linda Tuhiwai Smith (1999), Patricia Hill Collins (1990)

8)  In my own cosmology, Earth is my source; the mother of all creation. This comes from my ancestral lineage of being both African and Latinx. When I speak of the Earth as she/her, I am attempting to invoke ancient and indigenous cosmologies of the Earth as mother, for it is she who makes possible the existence of all life. That said, I am fully aware of how the conception of Earth as woman has been abused and exploited through patriarchal, gendered and sexist language that reinforces stereotypes and hierarchies. Men, like me, have a vital role to play; not to oppress, subjugate or dominate, but to honor and rekindle the sacred, matriarchal nature of life.

9) Term by co-originator of permaculture concept, David Holmgren in his four scenarios for the future. Permaculturalist and author Toby Hemenway (2010) also used this term in a lecture entitled “How Permaculture Can Save Humanity and the Planet – But Not Civilization” at Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment.


References for The Desert Under Our Feet: An Extraordinary Biological Web (March 2019)

Abella SR (2010) Disturbance and Plant Succession in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the American Southwest. Int J Environ Res Public Health7(4): 12481284. Published online 2010 Mar 25. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7041248

*Allen MF, Jenerette GD, Santiago LS (2013) Carbon Balance in California Deserts: Impacts of Widespread Solar Power GenerationCalifornia Energy Commission Publication number: CEC-500-2013-063 

Allen MF, Barrows CW, Bell MD, Jenerette GD, Johnson RF, Allen EB (2014) Threats to Californias Desert Ecosystems. Fremontia 42: 3-8

Belnap J, Hawkes CV, Firestone MK (2003) Boundaries in Miniature: Two Examples from Soil. BioScience53(8): 739–749

*Belnap J, Lange OL, eds. (2003) Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag

*Bloss, HE (1985) Studies of Symbiotic Microflora and Their Role in the Ecology of Desert Plants. Desert Plants 7: 119-127

*Bowers JE, Webb RH, Rondeau RJ. (1995) Longevity, recruitment and mortality of desert plants in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 6(4): 551-564

Bowns JE, West NE (1976) Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima Torr.) on southwestern Utah rangelands. Research Report 27. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Logan, Utah, USA

Bucking, H, Mensah J, Fellbaum CR (2016) Common mycorrhizal networks and their effect on the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Communicative Integrative Biology 9(1) e1107684

Christensen EM, Brown RC (1963) A blackbrush over 400 years old. Journal of Range Management 16: 118

Cody ML (2000) Slow-motion population dynamics in Mojave Desert perennial plants. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 351358

*Comis D, (2002) Glomalin: Hiding Place for a Third of the World’s Stored Soil Carbon. Agricultural Research Magazine Sept. 2002: 4-7

Evans RD, Koyama A, Sonderegger DL, Charlet TN, Newingham BA, Fenstermaker LF, Harlow B, Jun VL, Ogle K, Smith SD, Nowak, RS (2014) Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2.  Nature Climate Change 4: 394–397

Francis R, Read DJ (1984) Direct transfer of carbon between plants connected by vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium. Nature 307:53–56 

*Gibbens RP, Lenz JM (2001) Root Systems of some Chihuahuan Desert Plants. Journal of Arid Environments 49: 221-263

Gorzelak MA, Asay AK, Pickles BJ, Simard SW (2015) Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities. AoB PLANTS, Volume 7, 1 January 2015

Green LE, Porras-Alfaro A, Sinsabaugh RL (2008) Translocation of Nitrogen and Carbon Integrates Biotic Crust and Grass Production in Desert Grassland. Journal of Ecology96: 413-20

Hernandez RR, Hoffacker MK, Murphy-Mariscal ML, Wu G, and Allen MF (2015) Solar energy development impacts on land-cover change and protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 112: 13579-14584

*Hernandez RR, Easter SB, Murphy-Mariscal ML, Maestre FT, Tavassoli M, Allen EB, Barrows CW, Belnap J, Ochoa-Hueso R, Ravi S, Allen MF (2014) Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29: 766-779

Jasoni RL, Smith SD, Arnone JA (2005) Net ecosystem CO2 exchange in Mojave Desert shrublands during the eighth year of exposure to elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 11: 749756

*Lovich JE, Bainbridge D (1999) Anthropogenic Degradation of the Southern California Desert Ecosystem and Prospects for Natural Recovery and Restoration. Environmental Management 1999 Oct. 24(3): 309-326

MooreO’Leary KA, Hernandez RR, Johnston DS, Abella SR, Tanner KE, Swanson AC, Kreitler J, Lovich JE (2017)Sustainability of utilityscale solar energy critical ecological concepts. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15 (7): 385-394

Schlesinger WH (2016)An evaluation of abiotic carbon sinks in deserts. Global Change Biology 23(1): 25-27

Schlesinger WH (1985) The formation of caliche in soils of the Mojave Desert, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 49: 57-66

Schlesinger WH, Belnap J, Marion G (2009) On carbon sequestration in desert ecosystems. Global Change Biology 15: 1488-1490

Serrano-Ortiz P, Roland M, Sanchez-Moral S, Janssens IA, Domingo F, Godderis Y, Kowalski  AS (2010) Hidden, abiotic CO2 flows and gaseous reservoirs in the terrestrial carbon cycle: Review and perspectives. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 321-329

Swanson, AC (2017) Disturbance, Restoration, and Soil Carbon Dynamics in Desert and Tropical Ecosystems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Riverside

Tester M, Smith SE, Smith FA (1987) The phenomenon of “nonmycorrhizal” plants. Can. J. Bot. 65: 419-431

Weber B, Budel B, Belnap J (2016) Biological Soil Crusts: An Organizing Principle in Drylands. Switzerland: Springer


Excerpted text with links from Rattlesnakes And Kangaroo Rats by Malachi D. Whitford, Grace A. Freymiller, Rulon W. Clark (December 2018)

Kangaroo rats also have unique, enlarged hindlimb muscles that allow them to perform amazing, high-powered acrobatic leaps within milliseconds of perceiving a predator’s attack. This combination of super hearing and leaping allow them to avoid a rattlesnake strike in about a quarter of the time it takes you to blink an eye (!

Kangaroo rats are so good at avoiding snakes they can appear to be cocky about it. They perform a variety of harassing displays towards snakes, including kicking sand (, drumming on the ground with their hind feet (, and repeatedly approaching then jumping away ( These behaviors inform the snake that it has been detected and display the escape ability of the kangaroo rats, which then dissuades snakes from continuing to hunt in that area.

The strikes were unsuccessful due almost entirely to the kangaroo rats being able to rapidly leap out of the path of the strike (

Primed kangaroo rats had quicker reaction times, faster take-off velocities, and jumped more vertically relative to the ground, indicating that they could more effectively avoid the strike than control kangaroo rats (

So, we’re still gathering the requisite data to test our ideas, but you can at least see some examples from our high speed cameras at our YouTube channel (


References for Rearranging The Planet To Save It By Robert L. Chianese (December 2018)

Boxall, B. 2017. From spectacular vistas to the pits: A decades-long public land battle continues in the California desert.Los Angeles Times, August 7.

Desert Tortoise Council. 2017. Forty-Second Annual Meeting and Symposia Abstracts.

Edwards, T., and K. H. Berry. 2013. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? Anassessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations. Conservation Genetics 14:649–659.

Green, E. 2013. Can we save Mojave Desert tortoises by moving them out of harm’s way? High Country News, August 11.

Milius, S. 2014. Windows may kill up to 988 million birds a year in the United States.

Science News 185(6):8. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009. Desert Tortoise (Mojave Population) Field Manual (Gopherus agassizii).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2017. Status of the Desert Tortoise and Its Critical Habitat.


References for Which Way The Wind Blows – So Goes The Dust: In The Mojave River Valley By Pat Flanagan (September 2018)

(1) Click on APN numbers for maps.

(2) David R. Bedford and David M. Miller. USGS Poster 2013. Assessing the geology and geography of large-footprint installations in the Mojave Desert, California and Nevada. PDF available.




(6) David A. Bainbridge. A Guide for Desert and Dryland Restoration: New Hope for Arid Lands. 2007. Island Press. Page 22.


(8) For more on the MDRCD its mission and ongoing work go to



(11) Julie Laity (2003) Aeolian Destabilization Along the Mojave River, Mojave Desert, California: Linkages Among Fluvial, Groundwater, and Aeolian Systems, Physical Geography, 24:3, 196-221 PDF attached.





References for Salton Sea Air Quality By Earl Withycombe (September2018)

(1) Sea Air Quality Mitigation Program: 2016/2017 Annual Report and Emissions Estimates, prepared for Imperial Irrigation District in cooperation with the County of Imperial by Formation Environmental, LLC, Air Sciences Inc., and PlanTierra LLC, June 2018, and accessed on July 22, 2018

(2) Salton Sea Air Quality, Earl Withycombe, California Resources Board, presented at “Shrinking Shorelines and the Salton Sea: Consideration of Community Input, Recent Research, and Possible Solutions.” University of California Riverside, Palm Desert Campus, May 11, 2018

(3) PI-SWERL: Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab, Desert Research Institute, accessed on July 22, 2018

(4) Salton Sea Ecosystem Restoration Program Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Report, Appendix E, Attachment E4 – Constituents of Potential Concern in Sediments and Soils, and their Potential to Affect Human Health: .

(5) Characterization of Shallow Sub-Surface Sediments of the Salton Sea, 2003:

Occurrence, Distribution, and Transport of Pesticides, Trace Elements, and Selected Inorganic Constituents into the Salton Sea Basin, California, 2001-2002: .

Pesticides and PCBs in sediments and fish from the Salton Sea, California, USA: .

Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006–2007: .

Dissolved Pesticides in the Alamo River and the Salton Sea, California, 1996-97: .

Pesticide Concentrations in Water and in Suspended and Bottom Sediments in the New and Alamo Rivers, Salton Sea Watershed, California, April 2003: .


References for Pinyon-juniper Woodland Management in Nevada By Laura Cunningham (June 2017)

(1) Woodhouse’s scrub jay (Aphelocoma woodhouseii), Juniper Titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi), bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus), black-throated gray warbler (Setophaga nigrescens.

(2) Mule deer,(Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus canadensis), rabbits and cottontails, pocket mice (Chaetodipus spp.), pinyon mice (Peromyscus truei), chipmunks (Tamias spp.), bats, Western spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius), coyote (Canis latrans), mountain lion (Felis concolor), and bobcat (Lynx rufus).

(3) Juniper (Juniperus spp.),  sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, A. arbuscula, A. nova), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus), green ehpdra (Ephedra viridis), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), and numerous grasses and forbs.

(4) John Sawyer, Todd Keeler-Wolf, and Julie Evens. 2009. A Manual of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society: Sacramento. Second Edition.

(5) Julio Betancourt, Thomas Van Devender, and Paul Martin (eds.). 1990. Packrat Middens: The Last 40,000 Years of Biotic Change. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson.




References for Tick Borne Diseases? Yes, Even in the Deserts by Edie Harmon (June 2017)

  1. Imperial County Health Department, Epidemiologists Dr. Maria Fierro and Carla Lucas. Phone conversations and email communications with Harmon in 2009, 2015, 2016, and 2017.
  2. Lane, RS, Kjemtrup AM. 2016 Pest Notes “Lyme disease in California.” Integrated Pest Management for Homes, Gardens and Landscapes. Univ. CA Agric. And Natural Resources, UC Davis.
  3. Green G, Kjemtrup, et al. 2014 Tick-borne infections in California. Sonoma Medicine Fall 2014.
  4. Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Beard C. 2016. “County-scale distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the continental Unites States.” Journal of Medical Entomology, 2016, 1–38  doi:
  5. CDC 2015, March 4. How many people get Lyme disease? “Preliminary results from three different evaluation methods suggest that the number of people diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the United States is around 300,000.
  6. CDPH-VBDS 2011. “Lyme disease in California” Brochure
  7. CDC 2017   And CDC 2011
  8. CDPH-VBDS 2016? “Epidemiology and prevention of tick-borne diseases in California: Information for Physicians and Other Health-Care and Public Health Professionals” . 131 pps.  P. 4 pf 131 is a table of tick-borne diseases in CA, the agent/pathogen causing the disease and the tick vector, p. 7 identifies the 8 species of ticks that bite humans
  9. CDC-MMWR 2016 “Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses, Ehrlichoses, and Anaplasmosis – United States.: A Practical Guide for Health Care and Public Health Professionals.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports. Vol. 65 No. 2. May 13, 2016. 48 pps.


References for Earth, Air, and… Politics: Questions, Answers, and More Questions at the Salton Sea by Craig Deutsche (June 2017)

  1. Wikipedia on QSA
  2. Quantifiation Settlement Agreement and related agreements and documents to which Southern Califronia Agencies are Signatories
  3. Nov 18, 2014 letter from IID to hold a stakeholders meeting
  4. Salton Sea Task Force website
  5. MOU federal/state
  6. IIS letter to SWRCB, November 15, 2016
  7. 7. SSMP, Phase I
  8. IID letter to SWRCB, Marcy 15, 2017


References for Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility: Wrong from the Start by Parke & Linda Ewing (March 2017)

1. OWEF Plan of Development:



4. OWEF Imperial County Planning & Development Services (EIR)

5. Basin and Range Watch

6. 1603 Cash Grant Awards; (Click on List of Awards)


8. Ocotillo Wind Website

9. Radar Activated Obstruction Lighting System for Wind Turbines


The Perfect (Dust) Storm by Pat Flanagan (March 2017)

1. Zimbelman, Williams, and Tchakerian. 1995. Sand Transport Paths in the Mojave Desert, Southwestern United States. Desert Aeolian Processes. Ed. Vatche P. Tchakerian. Chapman & Hall. See map page 105. pdf

2. NRCS Plant Communities Accessed 2/1/2017

3. On my 5 acres atop the STP I measured 3 clones ranging from approximately 450 to 700 years old. To get the age estimate divide the radius of the clone by the average growth rate (Mojave Desert) of 0.03 inches/year. Frank C. Vasek. 1980. Creosote Bush: Long Lived Clones in the Mojave Desert. Am. Jour. Of Botany 67: 246-255. Accessed 2/3/2017


5. PM2.5 is often listed with PM10 but will not be discussed in this article. PM 2.5 is 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller, and can only be seen with an electron microscope. Fine particles are produced by all types of combustion.

6. Particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), photochemical oxidants (O3), and lead (Pb).




10. The Lucerne Valley and Twentynine Palms stations monitor PM10 but are not used to determine the ambient baseline conditions for Morongo Basin solar projects. Lucerne Valley registers 2.8 days above the National ambient air quality standards. See footnote #7. This would be a better fit for the Morongo Basin baseline until a PM10 air monitoring station is installed in Twentynine Palms or the JTNP Oasis Visitor Center.

11. Rule 403.2 (C) Requirements

12. Rule 403.2 (G)(7)(a)(ii) Page 13

13. The monitoring station on the 29 Palms Marine Base measures for PM10 but the District does not use if for baseline calculations because dust rising from Base operations would skew the data.

14. See the California Emissions Estimator Model

15. Geomorphic Assessment and Sand Transport Impacts Analysis of the Colorado River Sub Station. Prepared for CPUC and Aspen Environmental. Revised Feb. 2, 2011. ESA PWA (pdf attached)


References for Countdown For The Salton Sea by Craig Deutsche (September 2016)

1. QSA:
2. 2007 EIS with proposals:
3. Pacific Institute: Consequences of Inaction:
4. Department of Natural Resources – Salton Sea (with many other links): ;


References for Air We Can Not Breathe by Marina Barragan (June 2016)

  4. Environmental injustice, often in the form of environmental racism, occurs when local governments or companies build environmentally detrimental infrastructure in minority communities. Not only do the communities suffer from the health effects of these projects, but their access to health care is also limited by the often rural and low-income nature of their towns.
  6. Sierra Club My Generation Campaign is a youth led campaign fighting for 100% clean energy with leaders from the frontline communities
  12. The GrEAT Sierra Alliance is a collaboration between the GrEAT Academy at Desert Mirage High School, Sierra Club San Gorgonio Chapter and Sierra Club My Generation Campaign



References for Blowing In The Wind: Airborne Dust and Valley Fever by Edie Harmon and Craig Deutsche (June 2016)

1. A long article in the Atlantic Monthly discussing many aspects of the disease.

2. CDC on symptoms of Valley Fever.

3. Epidemiological studies on Valley Fever in California.

4. Detailed report on military studies of disease during WWII.

5. Gorilla with Cocciodioidomycosis in Los Angels Zoo.

6. Relative incidence and funding of Valley Fever and West Nile Virus.

7. Transfer of prison population in California.

8. On incidence of disease among construction workers at solar energy facility.